Mindfulness to Thrive Online

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This is warrior training. The Bulls and the Lakers know that simple exercises can increase attentional agility. Mindfulness is about becoming aware of how we direct our attention. It improves attention, decision-making, happiness, and relationships. Our breath links our mind, our brain, and our body – and paying attention to our breath helps cultivate mindfulness. When our mind becomes scattered, we can use our breath as the means to take hold of our mind again. By intentionally practicing mindfulness we ultimately change the architecture of our brain through neuroplasticity.

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Just as the slow food movement preserves traditional cuisine and local produce as an antidote to the fast food movement, slow education is a response to content-heavy curriculum and standardised testing. Slow learning encourages close looking.

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We have information overload and continuous partial attention. Howard Rheingold believes that mindfulness is the most important practice for anyone trying to swim through the infostream. It is the power tool that all the other literacies depend upon. Attention to intention is how the mind shapes the brain.

We used to manage our time. Now we need to learn how to manage our attention. We can notice when our attention wanders and gently bring it back – like training a puppy.

Pico Iyer claims that in an age of speed, nothing is more invigorating than going slow, and in an age of distraction, nothing is more luxurious than paying attention.

How are you directing your attention?

And how are you helping your students direct their attention?

(Images: Paul Vera-Broadbent; blog.eataly.com; Colfe’s History Department)

Skype and the Anzac legend

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This term I have been teaching my Year 9 History class about the ANZAC legend and the commemoration of war. I have always enjoyed teaching these topics, though this time as we neared the end of the unit, I started to feel uneasy. My students seemed to be describing things in simplistic black and white terms. While they had read and discussed differing views, and connected with New Zealand students to discuss the significance of Anzac 100 years on, I began to realise that I had not done a very good job of enabling them to see the complexities of the topic. I stewed on my failure, and then went back to the readings I had provided my students and started googling the authors’ names. I found three of them on Twitter and five email addresses, so I sent out eight invitations to Skype with my class. Five replied. Of these, two couldn’t connect with us (one of them was in Turkey). I set up three Skype calls. The first postponed and then failed to respond at the appointed time, that’s just part and parcel of dealing with busy professionals and these sorts of learning opportunities. Two did connect with us.

Dr Craig Barrett is a historian and built heritage specialist, with a PhD focusing on the return of Australian POWs.  He spoke about how the legend itself hasn’t been manipulated much, but the way that war is commemorated has changed. He related how aspects of the Anzac legend were formed in the bush in the 19th century and the key aspect of mateship has been stable over time. He spoke about how the Australian tourism trickle to Gallipoli in the 1980s became a flood in the 2000s and about how Peter Weir’s 1981 Gallipoli film changed attitudes toward Anzac Day and the legend. He also spoke about the disconnect between the legend and what really happened.

The following lesson was with Professor Joan Beaumont from ANU. She explained how the legend is not a historical account of what happened in the war, it is about identity and nationalism, and it tells us what we value today. A myth is how we want to remember the past because it is about what we consider to be important. There were a number of reasons that the Anzac legend took off, both the British and Australian governments wanted more people to join up and it helped grieving families find solace in the fact that their children had died for a reason. She was critical of the recent inappropriate commercialisation of Anzac Day by Woolworths and the AFL.

(With thanks to Charlie for his notes which were used to produce the above two paragraphs).

For each Skype learning call, a student volunteer introduced the class and thanked our guest at the end, three students took notes for the rest of the class to access later, and one student researched the background of the speaker during the call. For everyone else, their job was to listen and think of good questions to ask. They were keen to know the guest’s thoughts on: commemoration, the role of the media, the glorification of Anzac, how the Anzac legend has changed over time, and whether the Anzac legend has been manipulated to suit the morals and values of contemporary Australian society. I was also delighted that they were interested in finding out about what is involved in being a professional historian.

I am amazed at the goodwill of these busy professionals to spend time with a Year 9 class, I am astounded by the learning experiences technology enables for our students today, and I am proud of my students for their great questions and their deep thinking about these topics.  They will be writing about it next week and I am really interested to see what sense they are making of it all now.

 

From Ping-Pong to Basketball Questions

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When teachers start to focus on developing a culture of thinking, their questioning tends to swing away from procedural and review questions towards facilitative questions that push student thinking and make thinking visible.

Taking his lead from Dylan Wiliam, Ewan McIntosh pleads with teachers to stop ping-pong questioning and try basketball questioning instead:

“Pose a question, pause, ask another kid to evaluate the answer child one gave, and ask a third for an explanation of how and why that’s right or wrong.”

In Creating Cultures of Thinking, Ron Ritchhart also supports the basketball approach,

“It begins to feel more like a basketball game in which we have lots of players taking turns with the ball, rather than a simple back-and-forth with the teacher.” (p. 104)

“the ball (question) is passed around and ideas are bounced off one another, as the ball is moved down the court.” (p. 213)

I have coached basketball for years. Now I’m playing it in class.

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The Language of Group Learning

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Language is powerful and words matter. When I first began coaching basketball I caught myself referring to the team as “you” when the team lost and “we” when the team won. It was a subconscious way of excluding myself from responsibility for losing, which profoundly embarrassed me when I realised what I was doing. Ever since, I have used “we” whether we win or lose, the inclusive language of team.  In a classroom, inclusive language helps students view learning as a cooperative rather than a competitive endeavour and it helps students take more responsibility for the conduct of the class, sharing power with the teacher and co-learning together.

Project Zero’s Daniel Wilson, studied group learning in adventure racing teams for his doctoral thesis and he found that the most successful teams were far more likely to use conditional language when they were lost than the teams that were not so successful. “We might be here” rather than “This is where we are.” Teams that use conditional language are better at pulling together, pooling ideas, and harnessing group knowledge. In contrast, when absolute language is used, it seems defensive and assertive. When teachers use conditional language, students quickly catch on that they are looking for collective meaning-making and building on others’ thinking, rather than trying to guess correct answers. Wilson’s research also found that the successful teams that were using conditional language were more likely to ask each other questions and more likely to build on each other’s ideas.

Discussing this with classes can have a dramatic impact on the way that they talk and learn as a group. Several years ago one of my classes developed the metaphor of building on each other’s ideas like ice-cream scoops, instead of pop-corning their own individual thoughts. They even went as far as self-assessing themselves at the end of a class, “We did too much pop-corning today and not enough ice-creaming.”

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My Playlist

Image: http://dreamatico.com/music.html

The neuroscience is pretty clear about the role of emotions in learning. It makes sense that people learn better when they are happy. Whenever I can, I play a song as students are entering class. I knew I was on a winner when two older students walked past my room one morning as the music was blaring out and one nudged the other and said. “I told you we should have done Modern History.” I have a different song for each unit I teach:

Australians in WWI – Eric Bogle’s The Band Played Waltzing Matilda

Australians in WWII – Hoodoo Guru’s Tojo

Rights and Freedoms – Paul Kelly’s From Little Things Big Things Grow

Alexander the Great – The Theme from Grease

US Civil Rights – U2’s Pride

Tiananmen Square – David Bowie’s China Girl

The World in 1900 – Tears for Fears’ Everybody Wants to Rule the World

World War I – REM’s It’s the End of the World and We Know It

Nazi Germany – Nena’s 99 Luftballons

Ho Chi Minh – Carl Douglas’ Kung Fu Fighting

Vietnam War – Credence Clearwater Revival’s Fortunate Son

Cambodia – The Dead Kennedy’s Holiday in Cambodia

Extension History – Split Enz’s History Never Repeats

I also have songs I play for certain times of the year:

Mondays – The Boomtown Rats’ I Don’t Like Mondays

Fridays – The Easybeats’ Friday on My Mind

Start of term – Theme from Welcome Back Kotter

End of term – Madonna’s Holiday

End of the year – Fall Out Boy’s Thnks fr th Mmrs

When I teach students the acronym SEXC for writing paragraphs I always have Right Said Fred’s I’m Too Sexy playing

If I taught Science I would use Thomas Dolby’s She Blinded Me With Science

If I taught Maths I would use The Swingers’ Counting the Beat

What song’s do you use? What songs could you use?

And yes, I’m a child of the 80s.

Leading and Redefining Future Schools

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I recently attended the World Educational Leadership Summit run by the International Association for Scholastic Excellence in Singapore. The conference focus was on leading and redefining schools. I was keen to see how the speakers’ thinking aligned, particularly in the Asian educational environment. I was surprised by how many Australians attended the conference and it was interesting to hear about the innovation occurring in international schools around the region.

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Stephen Murgatroyd outlined the challenges for the future of schools, arguing that we are currently in what he neatly described as “the in-between time”. He mentioned Roger’s curve which is a nice visual example of laggards versus early adopters. He argued that “schools innovate, systems don’t”, and that “collaboration is the DNA of the innovation economy.”

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Simon Breakspear outlined a blueprint for deeper learning in schools by looking at what works for innovative global leaders and organisations. He spoke about identifying the most high leverage learning problem in a school, and then pursuing rapid prototyping cycles, starting small, learning fast, and failing well. He reinforced that transformation can only occur at the speed of trust between the most innovative educators and the rest of their colleagues.

Describing an innovation-driven economy, Tony Wagner insisted that “Isolation is the enemy of improvement and innovation”, and that schools should be teaching the skills of collaborative problem-solving. He claimed that educators have a responsibility to help both parents and students understand the need for change, “Being a good exam-taker is no longer a guarantee of employment or success.” Tony also promoted Looking at Student Work protocols and using digital portfolios formatively.

Sugata Mitra described his Hole in the Wall project, Self-Organised Learning Environments, and the School in the Cloud project. He claimed that children in these environments can competently search for answers to big questions, far ahead of what is expected of them in their school curriculum. “A SOLE is bringing a PhD down to a 9-year old.” Teachers should understand that they are managers of chaotic systems, and this chaos enables learning.  He also argued that schools should not be assessing individually, “Allowing the Internet into the examination hall will change the entire system.”

Pasi Sahlberg explained how Finland has succeeded in avoiding the global education reform movements prevalent in the USA, UK, and Australia. He spoke about the importance of encouraging failure in schools, “fail early and fail often.” The 13th of October is a national day to celebrate failure in Finland. Pasi stated that in the next ten years Finland is aiming to cut down instruction time by half. He explained the recently much heralded phenomenon-based teaching approach, which is essentially newly created curriculum space for schools to develop an integrated unit of study. Of most interest to me is that students will be involved in the planning and assessment of these new phenomenon-based units. Pasi also made the point that many high-performing systems speak two languages.

Yong Zhao spoke about how the knowledge and skills valued by schools today may not help children live a successful life in the future. There is currently a global youth unemployment problem – young, educated, unemployed. We have to assume there will be no jobs. Technology and globalisation are changing the value of knowledge and skills. Schools have lost the monopoly over knowledge and learning opportunities. A traditional assessment system tests what we teach, not what students have learned. Short-term instruction is affecting long-term outcomes. The pursuit of high test scores requires sacrifices. Cheating is the most effective way of passing the exam. Is what we are teaching important? Is what we measure important? “If you have no intrinsic motivation you get small cleverness, not big wisdom.” Everyone now needs a start-up mindset. Google is saying that if you want to be managed you are unemployable. Schools need to release their staff from Stockholm syndrome.

I also finally met the inspiring Jon Andrews, Executive Director of Teaching and Learning at St Paul’s College in Brisbane. Check out some of the things his school is doing in terms of self-determined learning and innovative leadership roles.

My takeaways:

What should I keep doing?

The emphasis we are placing on staff collaboration, the use of protocols, and building trust to become a true learning organisation has been strongly reinforced, as have PBL and Reggio-inspired pedagogies. The work of our Student ThinkTank was also reinforced.

What should I start doing?

I’m thinking about using the Question Formulation Technique at the start of a unit and incorporating the student questions into the unit planning. Sugata Mitra’s SOLE framework appears worthy of investigation as a framework for teaching with technology. I am going to experiment with using Google Drive as a digital portfolio and I need to model this by putting my teaching units online. I’m wondering if I can steal the 13th of October as a day to celebrate failure at my school? I need to explain to parents and students why being a good exam-taker is no longer a path to success and employment. Also, it is time for me to collate my resources on group learning into a presentation.

What should I stop doing?

Tony Wagner spoke about taking staff to another school to learn from others. Years ago I took three Heads of Department to another school to explore learning spaces and innovative approaches. We had lunch in a restaurant before returning to school and those HODs have since described it as one of their most powerful professional learning moments. I’m wondering if I should do more of this and release HoDs from their presently mandated professional learning requirements.

How do we Learn in Teams?

Last weekend we ran a leadership retreat for our Heads of Department. The retreat focused on how we learn in teams, how we lead team learning, and how we might document, reflect on, and share our team learning. It was largely a participant-driven event, commencing with a discussion of Amy Edmondson’s book Teaming: How organizations learn, innovate, and compete in the knowledge economy.

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Key themes early on in the discussion were grassroots learning, questioning, collegiality, and collaboration. A couple of hilarious role-plays ensued with the Head of Christian Studies acting like an owl (something to do with scaring crows away) and the Headmaster doing a pretty poor job of attempting to revive the Head of Geography after a cardiac arrest. Effective teaming was seen to include: flexibility, collaboration, shared goals, honesty, conflict, and most importantly, plain speaking, feedback, and help – in a psychologically safe environment.

Then, following dinner on Friday evening, Simon Brooks (Head of Teaching and Learning at Masada College) joined us to facilitate a Descriptive Consultancy protocol. This year we have abandoned the concept of staff PD days and instead spread the time into 70 minute subject-specific team learning time on alternate Monday mornings (with the students arriving late, in time for period 2). One of our Heads of Department presented a dilemma about the difficulty keeping tabs on everyone as they undertake an array of disparate tasks in this team learning time. Simon facilitated the discussion brilliantly and my Headmaster later commented, “I felt like we were in the presence of a Master.”

Saturday morning commenced with a period of reflection and prayer, before the Headmaster outlined his thinking on the virtues of leadership. “The effectiveness of the leader will be tied to the respect that the leader can command and that will be generated by the character of the leader and the virtues she can display consistently and truthfully.” He spoke about how the work of teachers and leaders in a school is a moral task, the importance of developing practices shared by the group through meetings and interpersonal actions, and not just having good ideas but enacting those ideas.

Then there was an opportunity for each Head of Department to share their dilemmas related to their leadership of the team learning time. There was discussion about: resolving tensions, building disparate individuals into a team, making time to play together, the frequency and effectiveness of meetings, best practice in teaching, building on expertise, monitoring the learning, developing and promoting cultures of thinking, sharing weaknesses/struggles, letting voices be heard, flattening structures, reflecting, and big picture thinking.

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Following this an Open Space-style unconference was held with participants proposing their own topics of interest and then hosting their own discussions. Five conversations ensued:

Cultures of thinking – How do we move the Cultures of Thinking approach from department to whole-school? Various approaches were discussed including: show and tell (read, trial, share), suggest don’t mandate, ask for feedback, use noticeboards (in class, around the school, and electronic). There was also discussion of specific routines, like See…Think…Wonder… and Compass Points.

The evolving role of the Head of Department – A mindmap was produced that covered this topic. How do HoDs find time for all these things? What is suffering as a result of the role/workload increasing? How does the Executive help or hinder our role? To what extent are all stakeholders aware of each other’s demands and how time-consuming these demands are? New roles are appearing and roles are expanding. Expectations in fulfilling the role are both personal and school-based. Who can support us? How?

Documentation and sharing – The benefits of documentation are: deeper thinking, starting conversations, sharing between departments and building on each other’s efforts, sharing/reflecting on the process/progression/learning and where that might lead to next, valuing more than the finished product, encouraging team collaboration to inform and improve. ‘Share-worthy’ material does not have to be perfect and packaged, it can be a work-in-progress rather than ready to use. Reflection and improvement, and growth mindset are needed to keep it moving forward, to not just avoid failure, but avoid plateauing or sticking to the status quo. It should be seen as a comment/feedback space, not show and tell. We need to learn from mistakes and share what didn’t work so others can learn from it, and celebrate our mistakes. We should replace displays regularly, like in primary schools, so it becomes a talking point.

  • Could the exhibition and design crew service group be responsible for documenting and sharing some student and teacher work?
  • Can we make use of the Reggio experts in our school or visit Reggio pre-schools to see how they do it?
  • Could we introduce the concept of a rotating citizen journalist, where each week a different team member documents a snapshot of a team’s learning to share?
  • Should each department have a dedicated documentation space that both staff and students can see?

Getting the best out of people – Relationships are important. Focus on the positives. Specific praise/ positive feedback, flexibility, celebrate small steps, respect/interest outside the classroom, depersonalise risk by using conditional statements.

Cross-departmental collaboration – Having teacher-librarians and academic support staff involved in the planning of coursework, resources, skills, helping decode questions, cross-faculty collaboration provides equitable skills/resource assistance to all students and everyone benefits, awareness of the importance of information skills/academic support is available throughout the learning spectrum, team-teaching across departments where the opportunity presents, look at each department’s schedules for the opportunities.

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The afternoon was then rounded out with the Success Analysis protocol, which shares successes with colleagues in order to gain insight into the conditions that lead to those successes, so we can do more of what works. Some of the key conditions that lead to success were identified as:

  • Planning
  • Explicit communication
  • Differentiating and awareness of differences
  • Listening, giving people a voice, and setting aside time (eg. goal-setting conversations)
  • Persistence against resistance

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To conclude the retreat, participants were asked to write a reflection based on the retreat goals. The following summarises the key themes in the responses:

How do we learn in teams?

  • Valuing everyone’s input
  • Respecting conflicting points of view
  • Ensuring ‘psychological safety’
  • Common/shared goals, agreed to by the team
  • Being willing to take risks, experiment, and fail
  • Listening/documenting actively
  • Being honest
  • Communicating openly
  • Trusting others
  • Collaborating
  • Having time to reflect on what happened

How do we lead team learning?

  • Giving everyone a voice and a right to be heard
  • Giving up your leadership to others, to allow them to grow
  • Modelling good practice
  • Learning from mistakes and allowing the team to fail forward
  • Sharing agreed goals
  • Using protocols as a means of moving forward in a structured way and keeping conversations on track
  • Showing interest in others
  • Using the expertise and experience of others
  • Developing a culture of trust

How might we document, reflect on and share team learning?

  • Valuing protocols for reflecting on team learning
  • Finding a physical space to document learning for staff and students
  • Celebrating the process rather than just the final product

I found two of the written reflections particularly striking:

“The revelation for me at this conference has been the effectiveness of ‘the protocol’. The structure it brings to discussion and the fact that it is a very inclusive way of dealing with a problem or discussing a strategy. I think this is going to be a very valuable tool for our department when trying to ‘move forward’ with certain issues. I look forward to getting more information on these different protocols.” (Matt)

“I think the focus on learning in our teams is under threat or at least the desire to make our teams a place of learning is being resisted. I heard stories of resource development and new ideas being implemented but I wonder if we can accurately describe this as learning. Is developing a new assessment for Year 9 really learning? Perhaps co-creation does involve learning but this seems to be a question that is still being worked out.” (Doug)

I’m wondering about Doug’s point above – what is the difference between ‘learning’ and ‘work’ for teachers? Does the Descriptive Consultancy protocol provide a help-seeking model for us to work towards, where educators present problems or dilemmas and receive feedback from their peers within a safe structure? Would cross-curricular teams operate more effectively than subject-specific teams? How can we bring students into the conversations we are having about their learning?

Words like ‘flourish’, ‘professional’, and ‘team’ dominated the conversations during the retreat and I left enthused by the flourishing, professional team I am learning with.

Can Professional Education Bodies Survive?

Many years ago I served for one year on the NSW History Teachers’ Association Executive Committee. It was a fantastic opportunity to meet key players but I quickly found that my co-curricular responsibilities at school made it impossible for me to attend the committee meetings, so I resigned after one year.

Now I am on the Australian Council for Educational Leaders’ national taskforce for teaching professionals strategy, which aims to connect teaching professionals with knowledge, resources and people via forums, networking, conferences, and social media. Recently I was invited to nominate for the Board of the Australian Curriculum Studies Association, however I missed their deadline! I also communicate regularly with Leanne Cameron and Matt Esterman about their ongoing attempts to lead the NSW ICT Educators group.

From my perspective, professional education organisations are struggling.

Last week I attended an Australian College of Educators‘ Fellows dinner. I was invited to attend by one of the Fellows, Richard Ford. Richard presented the after dinner speech addressing the future of ACE. He pointed out that the recognition provided by the College is diminishing, there are better conferences and networking events outside the College, the ACE journal is of limited value, and there are few opportunities for members to contribute to an informed advocacy body. He powerfully made the point that the College needs to become better at: listening to its members and understanding the challenges faced by them, designing programs of exceptionally high quality, and harnessing the expertise and experience of its members. It was a quite brilliant speech and it seemed to be well received. Apparently there is a possibility that the full speech might be posted on the ACE website, but in order to do that, they need the permission of the President, which in itself strikes me as a bit of an issue.

Will professional education bodies survive? Are they needed? Or do we now get enough via Twitter?

The Question Formulation Technique

I like using the Question Formulation Technique with students. I usually introduce it in one of the first lessons of the year. By introducing it early, I’m trying to make a statement that questions are more important than answers in my class and that it is OK to ask questions that we might not know the answers to. It’s about fostering the disposition of curiosity and acknowledging that different people bring different questions to the table.

My Year 9 History class is currently commencing a unit on Australia’s involvement in World War One. I gave them the over-arching question/topic as simply ‘why was Australia involved in World War One?’ and then we jumped into the QFT.

The first step requires students to produce their own questions. They need to write down as many questions as they can in a specified time period, without pausing to discuss, judge, or answer the questions. This gets a whole bunch of ideas on the table.

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The second step is to improve the questions. Instead of open and closed questions, I find it helpful to talk about fat and skinny questions, kids get this, and I always pause here to have a classroom discussion about what a good question looks like and what is involved in producing a good question. I’m continually amazed at their depth of thinking and insight.

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The third step is to prioritise the questions. I ask them to choose the best two questions on their tables of four students, but before I do this I ask them to stop and consider the process of working together – ensuring that everyone contributes and nobody dominates.

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Finally I get them to graffiti their best questions on the windows using liquid chalk. They love the sense of anti-authoritarianism in this. We then step back and look at the questions and talk about each of them.

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Over the course of the coming term we will try to answer each of these questions in some depth. I hope that through the QFT process we have set a platform that we can keep looping back to as the year unfolds. I also hope to have the chance to work more closely with the Right Question Institute in the future.

SplashED

Last week I spent a day at a workshop learning about the ABC Splash website and online resources. I am of the opinion that anything produced by the ABC is likely to be of good quality and, while I had heard of Splash before and checked out the website, I had never taken the time to really peruse the resources properly. It is an impressive collection, with content mapped to the Australian curriculum and the site is easy to search. In addition to a growing collection of ABC video resources, there is a collection of appropriate educational games, and I like the digibooks, which are like a channel of collated resources.

The film clips are all about five minutes long. They are good quality clips, cut with the concentration span of the YouTube generation in mind, from the ABC archives. I have curated some of the clips that I will be using in my teaching this year:

Australians at War

The Meaning of ANZAC Day: This clip explains why some people think that Anzac Day (rather than Australia Day) should be Australia’s national day and shows the differences between what ANZAC Day means to older people and younger people. It is a good way to start students thinking about how and why Australians commemorate war.

Equipment, More Equipment: In this clip from a wartime Movietone newsreel, former PM Billy Hughes implores Australians to contribute to the manufacture of military equipment during World War Two.

Rights and Freedoms

Australia’s 1967 Referendum: In this clip, Faith Bandler talks about how the eyes of the world were on Australia’s 1967 referendum result. It is a clip I have used from YouTube previously, however this version is better quality.

Two Years After the 1966 Wave Hill Walk-Off: This clip explains how the Wave Hill walk-off was more than just a wage dispute.

Native Title: This clip shows how the High Court decision ‘tore the country apart’.

Popular Culture

ABC National TV Service Opening Night 1956: This clip is from the opening moments of the first ABC television broadcast in 1956. Many people viewed this first broadcast through shop windows.

Australian Teen Culture – Birth of Skateboarding: The growth of suburbia in the 1950s, 60s and 70s facilitated the growth of Australia’s skating culture. This clip from 1976 shows Australian teenagers skating and reflects how skateboarding represented its own culture and attitude.

Vinyl – The Australian Record Industry 1963: In this clip from 1963 you experience the age of vinyl records, which created a teenage mass market and revolutionised Australian popular culture.

The Stomp – A 1960s Dance Craze: The arrival of rock ‘n’ roll in the late 1950s was accompanied by a wave of youth rebellion, and a ‘generation gap’ between teenagers and their parents. This clip from a 1963 Weekend Magazine program shows how the Stomp became a craze.

Surf Culture Hits Australia in the 1960s: In the 1960s the surfboard gave rise to a new youth subculture. This clip from 1964 explores the cultural changes, such as a new vocabulary and new hairstyles, that came with the rise of the ‘surfie’.

Popular Culture Post-War Digibook: A neat collation of several popular culture resources in one handy bundle.